Dirleton Bowling and Outdoor Club

Subtitle

Lawnbowls Rules

Contents

 

Foreword

Section 1 - Definitions: control, players, play and bowls 

  1 Definitions

    1.1 Control

1.2 Players

1.3 Play

1.4 Bowls

 

     

Section 2 - The green, ditch and banks 

  2 The green 

  3 The ditch 

  4 The bank 

  5 Division of the green 

     

Section 3 - Equipment: mat, jack, bowls and measures 

  6 Mat

  7 Jack

  8 Bowls

    8.1 Specifications

8.2 Bias of bowls 

8.3 Lodging a challenge to bowls 

8.4 Following up a challenge to bowls 

8.5 Bowls failing a test 

8.6 Alteration to bias 

 

  9 Bowls: World Bowls Stamp 

  10 Measuring equipment 

     

Section 4 - Arranging a game 

  11 General form and length 

  12 Choosing the rinks for play 

  13 Practice

  14 Play arrangements 

    14.1 Singles game 

14.2 Pairs game 

14.3 Triples game 

14.4 Fours game 

14.5 Side game 

14.6 A series of games 

14.7 A tournament of games 

 

  15 Sets play 

    15.1 Format of play 

15.2 Tie-breaker

15.3 Winners of sectional play 

15.4 First to play 

15.5 Re-spotting the jack 

 

  16 Formats of play 

    16.1 World events and Commonwealth Games 

16.2 International events 

16.3 Domestic events 

 

  17 Regulations for play 

    17.1 Domestic regulations 

17.2 Conditions of Play 

 

Section 5 - The game 

  18 Starting the game 

    18.1 Trial ends 

18.2 Tossing for opening play 

18.3 The start of play 

18.4 Play in other ends 

 

  19 Placing the mat 

    19.1 At the start of each end 

19.2 During each end 

 

  20 Position on the mat 

  21 Foot-faulting

  22 Delivering the jack 

  23 Improper delivery of the jack 

     

Section 6 - Movement of Bowls 

  24 Touchers

  25 Marking a toucher 

  26 Movement of touchers 

  27 Dead bowl 

  28 Bowl displacement 

    28.1 Bowl displacement by another player 

28.2 Bowl displacement by a wheelchair 

28.3 Bowl displacement by a neutral person or neutral object 

28.4 Bowl displacement when being marked as a toucher or during measuring 

28.5 Bowl displacement by a rebounding non-toucher 

28.6 Bowl displacement by a bowl from a neighbouring rink 

28.7 Bowl displacement by a dead bowl 

 

     

Section 7 - Movement of the jack 

  29 Live jack in the ditch 

  30 Dead jack 

  31 Dead end 

  32 Rebounding jack 

  33 Jack displacement 

    33.1 Jack displacement by another player 

33.2 Jack displacement by a wheelchair 

33.3 Jack displacement by a neutral person or neutral object 

33.4 Jack displacement during measuring 

33.5 Jack displacement by a non-toucher 

33.6 Jack displacement from a neighbouring rink 

 

     

Section 8 - Play, players and their duties 

  34 Team play 

    34.1 Number of players 

34.2 Order of play 

 

  35 Possession of the rink 

  36 Position of players 

    36.1 In relation to the rink of play 

36.2 In relation to a neighbouring rink 

 

  37 Players and their duties 

    37.1 The skip 

37.2 The third 

37.3 The second 

37.4 The lead 

37.5 Other duties 

 

  38 Player with disabilities 

     

Section 9 - Result of an end 

  39 The shot 

  40 Deciding the number of shots scored 

  41 No shot scored - tied end 

  42 Delivering the final bowl of an end 

     

Section 10 - Game decisions 

  43 Games played on one occasion 

  44 Tournament games and games in a series 

  45 A drawn game in knockout (eliminating) comptition 

     

Section 11 - Defaults of players in Fours play 

  46 Absentee players in a team or side 

    46.1 In a team game 

46.2 In a side game 

 

     

Section 12 - Irregularities 

  47 Irregularities during play 

    47.1 Playing out of turn 

47.2 Playing another player's bowl 

47.3 Changing bowls 

47.4 Failing to play 

 

  48 Damaged jack 

  49 Damaged bowls 

     

Section 13 - Factors affecting play 

  50 Game stoppages 

  51 Leaving the green during the course of play 

  52 Objects on the green 

  53 Unforeseen incidents 

  54 Deliberate non-sporting action 

     

Section 14 - Officials and spectators 

  55 The marker's duties 

  56 The umpire's duties 

  57 The manager or coach 

  58 Spectators

     

Section 15 - Administrative matters 

  59 International tours and competitions 

  60 Regulating Singles, Pairs, Triples and Fours games 

  61 Contracting out the Laws of the Sport of Bowls 

     

Appendix A 

  A.1 Conditions of Play 

  A.2 Footwear

  A.3 Clothing

  A.4 Restricting the movement of players during play 

     

Appendix B 

  B.1 Position of the bank 

  B.2 Marks on the surface of the rink 

  B.3 Centring the jack 

  B.4 Distance charts 

 

 

 

 

Section 1 - Definitions: control, players, play and bowls

 

1 Definitions

   

1.1 Control

  Controlling Body: the body with immediate control over the Conditions of Play (see law 17.2) under which a game is played. The order is:

 

World Bowls (WB);

a National Bowling Authority that is a member of WB (‘Member National Authority’) or a group of Member National Authorities;

divisions within Member National Authorities; and

the club on whose green the game is being played.

 

   

1.2 Players

  1 Side: any agreed number of teams or Singles players (or a combination of teams and Singles players) whose combined scores decide the result of a competition.

2 Skip: the player who is in charge of the team.

3 Team play

Team: a Pair, a Triple or a Four.

Pair: a team of two players whose positions, in order of play, are ‘lead’ and ‘skip’.

Triple: a team of three players whose positions, in order of play, are ‘lead’, ‘second’ and ‘skip’.

Four: a team of four players whose positions, in order of play, are ‘lead’, ‘second’, ‘third’ and ‘skip’.

 

 

   

1.3 Play

  1 Centring the jack: placing the jack on the centre line of the rink, at the same distance from the mat line as it was when it came to rest.

2 Delivery: deliberately releasing a jack or a bowl from the hand using an underarm movement. If the jack or bowl accidentally slips from a player’s hand during delivery, the player can pick it up and start the delivery again.

3 Defaulting player, team or side: the player, team or side that does not meet the requirements of any specific law or laws.

 

4 Displaced jack or bowl: a jack or a bowl which is moved in a way that is not approved within the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.

5 Disturbing the head: altering the position of the jack or a bowl in the head.

6 Domestic play: any play under the direct control of a Member National Authority, a division within a Member National Authority or a club.

7 End: delivery of the jack, delivery of all the bowls required to be played by all of the opponents in the same direction on a rink, and deciding the number of shots scored. 

8 End ditches

Front ditch: the ditch at the end of the green which is directly in front of a player when they stand on the mat.

Rear ditch: the ditch at the end of the green which is directly behind a player when they stand on the mat.

 

9 Face of the bank: the surface of the bank from the surface of the ditch up to the top of any surround or edging.

10 Forfeited game: a game that is awarded to an opponent as a penalty for the defaulting player, team or side not meeting the requirements of one or more laws.

11 Former position: the position of a jack or a bowl at rest within the rink of play immediately before it is displaced. If a law says that a jack or a bowl should be put back to its former position, the person replacing the jack or bowl in this way should decide where that position is. If this person cannot accurately identify the former position, they should put the jack or bowl as near as possible to its former position.

12 Groundsheet: a rectangular piece of canvas or other suitable fabric placed temporarily on the surface of the green to protect it from any damage caused as a result of a player delivering the jack or a bowl. The rear edge of the groundsheet should be placed at least 2 metres from the rear ditch and at least 25 metres from the front ditch (in line with the requirements for placing the mat described in laws 19.1.1 and 19.1.5).

13 Head: the jack and any bowls which have come to rest within the boundaries of the rink of play and are not dead. (Law 30.1 describes a dead jack and law 27.1 describes a dead bowl.)

14 Holding surface: a natural or synthetic material that will prevent the jack or a bowl from running along the ditch.

15 Jack or bowl in its original course: a jack or a bowl from its delivery until it comes to rest, no matter how many times (for a bowl) it comes into contact with the jack or other bowls before it comes to rest or becomes dead. 

16 Jack or bowl in motion: a jack or a bowl which is moving during play after it has been at rest as part of the head.

17 Licensed Manufacturer: person or company licensed by WB to make bowls in line with the standards laid down in World Bowls Regulations.

18 Licensed Tester: person or company licensed by WB to test bowls to make sure they meet the standards laid down in World Bowls Regulations and the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.

19 Line jack or bowl: a jack or bowl which has come to rest partly inside and partly outside the side boundary of the rink of play.

20 Mat line: the edge of the mat nearest to the front ditch.  All measurements involving the mat and a jack or a bowl will be taken from the centre of the mat line.

21 Net total of set points: the total number of set points a player or team scores minus the total number of set points scored against them.

22 Net total of shots: the total number of shots a player, team or side scores minus the total number of shots scored against them.

23 Neutral

Neutral person: a person who is not a player on the rink of play. This includes the marker and the umpire.

 

Neutral object:

 

a jack, bowl or other object not belonging to any player on the rink of play;

a line jack or a line bowl belonging to a player on a neighbouring rink; or

a dead bowl that is at rest and has not been removed from the rink of play.

 

24 Open tournaments: competitions in which both members and non-members of the club hosting the event are eligible to take part, and in which more than one round can be played on the same day.

25 Pace of the green: the number of seconds taken by a bowl from its delivery to the moment it comes to rest at approximately 27 metres from the mat line. The higher the number of seconds taken, the faster the pace of the green.

26 Position of bowl in relation to jack

 

Jack high or jack level: the nearest part of a bowl is in line with and at the same distance from the mat line as the nearest part of the jack.

27 Rink and its boundaries

Rink: the section of the green on which a game is played.

Rink of play: the section of the green and the corresponding sections of the end ditches on which a game is played.

Side boundaries of the rink of play: the imaginary straight lines connecting the centres of the boundary pegs on opposite banks that show the limits of the rink of play.

End boundaries of the rink of play: the faces of the banks which are within the side boundaries of the rink of play.

 

28 Set: a pre-determined number of shots or ends forming part of a game.

29 Shot indicators (also known as lollipops or paddles): thin pieces of plastic or other suitable material, shaped, for example, like oars. The heads of the indicators match the colours of the adhesive markings on each player’s bowls (see law 8.1.8). During play, the marker holds up the appropriate number of indicators, in the appropriate colour, to signal to players and spectators which player’s bowl or bowls the marker considers to be shot.

30 Visiting skips: either:

 

the skips of teams other than those playing on their own green; or

the skips of the second-named team in each pair of competing teams when games are being played at a neutral venue.

 

 

 

   

1.4 Bowls

  1 Bias: the curved path along which a bowl travels from delivery until it comes to rest. (The shape of the bowl gives it its bias.)

2 Bias side of a bowl: the side of the bowl that is the more rounded of the two sides, which is identified by the small grooved rings surrounding its centre. (The non-bias side is identified by the large grooved rings surrounding its centre.)

3 Set of bowls: four bowls, all of which are:

 

of a matched set;

of the same make and model; and

of the same size, weight, colour, bias, serial number and engraving.

In all games, each player should play with the appropriate number of bowls from the same set.

 

4 Working Reference Bowl: a bowl approved by WB as:

 

having the minimum bias required; and

in all other respects, following the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.

Each Working Reference Bowl is engraved with the words ‘Working Reference Bowl’ and WB makes sure that each Licensed Tester is given a Working Reference Bowl.

 

 

Section 2 - The green, ditch and banks

 

2 The green 

  1 The green should be either rectangular or square.

2 The length of the green in the direction of play should be between 31 metres and

40 metres.

3 The green should have a suitable level playing surface.

 

4 The playing surface should be eithervegetation or a synthetic surface approved by a Member National Authority.

5 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide the standards for greens constructed in line with previous editions of this law.

 

   

3 The ditch 

  1 The green should be surrounded by a ditch.

2 The ditch should be:

 

between 200 millimetres and 380 millimetres wide; and

between 50 millimetres and 200 millimetres deep.

 

3 The ditch should have a holding surface which is free from obstacles and made of a material which will not damage the jack or the bowls.

 

4 For indoor greens, only the end ditches in the direction of play should meet the standards mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 3 above.

 

   

4 The bank 

  1 The ditch should have a bank against its outer edge.

2 The top of the bank should be at least 230 millimetres above the surface level of the green.

3 The bank should be vertical and set at a right angle (90°) to the surface of the green, or sloped at an angle of not more than 35° from the vertical (see diagrams 1, 2 and 3 in appendix B.1).

 

4 The surface of the face of the bank should be made of, or be covered with, a material which will not damage the jack or the bowls.

5 There should be no steps that could interfere with play either cut into or positioned against the face of the bank. 

 

   

5 Division of the green 

  The green should be divided into sections called rinks. 

   

  1 The rinks should be:

 

between 4.3 metres and 5.8 metres wide for outdoor play; and

between 4.6 metres and 5.8 metres wide for indoor play.

Wherever possible, all rinks on a green should be the same width. For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide the standard for the minimum width of a rink.

 

2 The rinks should be numbered in order, with the centre of each rink being marked on the bank at each end by a peg, disc or other suitable device that has the rink number on it and is fixed vertically:

 

to the face of the bank and flat against it; or

on the top of the bank not more than 100 millimetres back from its face; or

on the wall behind the bank (for indoor play only).

 

3 The four corners of the rinks should be marked by white or brightly coloured boundary pegs that are fixed vertically:

 

to the face of the bank and flat against it; or

on the top of the bank not more than 100 millimetres back from its face.

 

4 The boundary pegs should be:

 

not more than 50 millimetres wide and not more than 100 millimetres high if they are fixed to the face of the bank of an outdoor green; or

not more than 25 millimetres wide and not less than 600 millimetres high if they are fixed on the top of the bank of either an outdoor or an indoor green (although this height limitation does not apply to flexible boundary pegs containing a spring or similar mechanism in their base that allows them to bend on contact with an object or person); or

not more than 25 millimetres wide and the centre of the peg should be clearly marked by a thin black vertical line if they are fixed to the face of the bank of an indoor green.

 

5 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide:

 

the standards for boundary pegs made in line with previous editions of this law; and

the requirements for thin black vertical lines marking the centres of boundary pegs that are fixed to the face of the bank of an outdoor green or fixed on the top of the bank of either an outdoor or an indoor green.

 

6 The boundary pegs of an outside rink should be:

 

at least 600 millimetres from the side ditch for outdoor play; and

at least 460 millimetres from the side ditch for indoor play.

 

7 If a boundary peg is not vertical, it should be put so before a player or the umpire decides whether or not a jack or a bowl is within the boundary. 

8 If a player or the umpire finds a boundary peg in the wrong position, they should not move it until the end has been completed on any rinks affected. The peg should then be correctly positioned by the umpire or by agreement between the skips or opponents in Singles on the rinks affected. 

9 For outdoor play, the side boundary of the rink of play can be marked by connecting the boundary pegs with a green thread drawn tightly along the surface of the green, leaving enough loose thread to reach the corresponding pegs on the face or on the top of the bank. For domestic outdoor play, Member National Authorities can decide not to use boundary threads. 

10 The boundary thread (see paragraph 9 above) should not be lifted or held down when the jack or a bowl is in its original course or in motion.

11 Pegs, discs and other types of markers used to mark the centre and corners of the rinks should be made of a material which will not damage the jack or bowls.

12 White or brightly coloured pegs or discs should be fixed vertically against the face of the side banks or on top of the side banks in the direction of play to mark distances of 2 metres and 25 metres from the end ditches (see diagram 1 in appendix B.4). Wherever possible, these should be the only pegs or discs visible on the side banks.

13 The centre line of each rink can be marked along the surface of the green starting 2 metres from each end ditch and finishing at any point up to, but not less than, 25 metres from the opposite end ditch (see diagram 1 in appendix B.2).

14 The centre line of the rink can be marked at a distance of 2 metres from each end ditch (see diagram 2 in appendix B.2). The mark can be:

 

lines drawn in the form of a ‘T’; or

a small piece of suitable material inserted immediately below the surface of the green (for outdoor play only).

 

15 If part of the green is used for spectators, side ditches do not have to be used, but the distance markers on the side banks should be brought forward and fixed appropriately. They should be clearly visible to the players.

16 While there is temporary seating on the green, there should be a completely unrestricted area of the green that is at least 900 millimetres wide between the seated area and the outside boundary of the nearest rink.

 

Section 3 - Equipment: mat, jack, bowls and measures

 

6 Mat

  The mat should be 600 millimetres long and 360 millimetres wide.

   

7 Jack

  1 The jack should be a solid sphere (ball shaped) and either white or yellow.

2 For outdoor non-synthetic greens, the jack should:

 

measure between 63 millimetres and 64 millimetres across (the diameter); and

weigh between 225 grams and 285 grams.

 

3 For outdoor synthetic greens and indoor greens, the jack should:

 

measure between 63 millimetres and 67 millimetres across (the diameter); and

weigh between 382 grams and 453 grams.

 

 

   

8 Bowls

   

8.1 Specifications

  1 Bowls should be made of wood (lignum vitae), rubber or plastic resin (called composition or plastic bowls) and should be any colour approved by WB. The basic colour is added during the manufacturing process.

 

2 Indentations designed to help the player grip the bowl during delivery (for example, grooved rings or dimples) can be incorporated during the manufacturing process.

 

They can also be added at a later date, but only by a Licensed Manufacturer or a Licensed Tester.

 

3 Each set of bowls can carry a player’s individual emblem, logo or engraving as a distinguishing mark inside the smallest grooved ring on both sides of every bowl.

 

4 The requirement for distinguishing marks applies to all bowls used in International Events, World Bowls Championships and Commonwealth Games.

5 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide the requirements for distinguishing marks.

 

6 Bowls made of wood should:

 

measure between 116 millimetres and 134 millimetres across at their widest points; and

weigh up to 1.59 kilograms.

 

7 Bowls made of rubber or plastic resin should:

 

measure between 116 millimetres and 131 millimetres across at their widest points; and

weigh up to 1.59 kilograms.

 

8 The Controlling Body can supply adhesive (stick-on) markings for players to temporarily fix to both sides of their bowls, or allow players to use their own markings. When these markings are used:

 

they are part of the bowl for all purposes under the Laws of the Sport of Bowls;

there should be only one such marking fixed to either side of the bowl;

they should not be put over any distinguishing marks on the non-bias side of the bowl, although they can cover the distinguishing marks on the bias side of the bowl; and

all bowls belonging to players within a team or side should have these markings on them and the markings should all be the same design and colour.

 

 

 

8.2 Bias of bowls

  1 A Working Reference Bowl will have a bias approved by WB. All bowls should have a bias that is not less than that of a Working Reference Bowl and should be imprinted with the registered World Bowls Stamp.

2 To check the accuracy of the bias and the visibility of the World Bowls Stamp, all bowls should be re-tested and re-stamped at least once every 10 years, or earlier if the date of the stamp is not clearly legible.

 

3 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide the requirements for re-testing and re-stamping bowls.

 

 

8.3 Lodging a challenge to bowls 

  1 Any challenge to bowls should be based on the grounds that they donot meet one or more of the requirements of laws 8.1 and 8.2.

 

2 A challenge can be lodged by a player, the manager in a side game, the umpire or the Controlling Body.

 

3 No challenge, or notice that a challenge will be made, should be lodged during the trial ends or during a game. If the person making such a challenge is a player, that person will be disqualified and the game will be forfeited to the opponent.

 

4 If a challenge is lodged:

 

it should be lodged with the umpire or the Controlling Body;

it should be made not later than 10 minutes after the final end in which the bowls were used is completed; and

the person making the challenge, if they are an opponent or the manager in a side game, should pay a deposit to the umpire or Controlling Body for a fixed amount decided each year by WB or the relevant Member National Authority.

 

5 Once a challenge is lodged and the deposit paid, it cannot be withdrawn.

 

8.4 Following up a challenge to bowls

  1 The umpire should ask the player using the bowls concerned (the user) or the person who owns the bowls concerned (the owner) to hand over the set of bowls so that the umpire can send them to the Controlling Body for testing by a Licensed Tester.

 

2 Bowls sent for testing should be in sets of four.

 

3 If the user or owner of the challenged set of bowlsrefuses to hand the whole set over to the umpire, the game will be forfeited to the opponent.

 

4 Neither the user nor the owner should use the challenged set of bowls in any game controlled or permitted by the Controlling Body until the set of bowls has been tested by a Licensed Tester.

 

5 When the umpire has received the challenged set of bowls, they should take immediate steps to pass the set to the Secretary of the Controlling Body who should arrange for them to be tested by a Licensed Tester as soon as possible. The test should be carried out in the presence of representatives of any of the following: WB, the Member National Authority, the Controlling Body, and the user or owner if they want to attend.

6 If a Licensed Tester finds that the challenged set of bowls meets the requirements of laws 8.1 and 8.2:

 

the set of bowls should be returned to the user or owner by the Controlling Body; and

the person who lodged the challenge should lose their deposit and pay the Controlling Body for all expenses in having the tests done.

 

 

8.5 Bowls failing a test

  1 Failing a test as a result of a challenge being lodged (see law 8.3)

 

If a Licensed Tester finds that a bowl does not meet the requirements of laws 8.1 or 8.2, they should alter the bowl as necessary before returning it.

If a Licensed Tester cannot alter a bowl to meet the requirements of laws 8.1 and 8.2, they should cancel any current stamp imprinted on the bowl by stamping an ‘X’ over it before returning it.

If a Licensed Tester tests a challenged set of bowls and finds that they do not meet the requirements of laws 8.1 and 8.2:

the game in which they were used should be forfeited to the opponent;

the deposit should be returned to the person who lodged the challenge; and

the user or owner of the set of bowls should pay the Controlling Body for all expenses in having the tests done.

 

2 Failing a test as a result of routine re-testing (see law 8.2.2)

 

If a Licensed Tester finds that a bowl does not meet the requirements of laws 8.1 or 8.2, the user or owner of the set of bowls can choose whether to:

have the Licensed Tester alter the bowl as necessary before returning it; or

leave the bowl unaltered and have the Licensed Tester cancel any current stamp imprinted on the bowl by stamping an ‘X’ over it before returning it.

If a Licensed Tester cannot alter a bowl to meet the requirements of laws 8.1 and 8.2, they should cancel any current stamp imprinted on the bowl by stamping an ‘X’ over it before returning it.

 

 

8.6 Alteration to bias

  1 A player should not alter, or cause to be altered other than by a Licensed Tester, any bowl imprinted with the registered World Bowls Stamp in any way that would alter the bias of the bowl. 

2 Any player breaking this law will be suspended from playing for as long as the Member National Authority of which the player’s club is a member decides.

3 The Member National Authority which suspended the player should give WB details of the suspension, and the suspension will apply among all Member National Authorities.

 

4 Players or owners who colour the grooved rings or dimples on a bowl for decoration are not breaking this law. 

 

   

9 Bowls: World Bowls Stamp 

  1 Licensed Manufacturers and Licensed Testers are entitled to imprint the registered World Bowls Stamp between the inner and outer rings of bowls. Imprints on the running surfaces of bowls should be avoided wherever possible.

 

 

 

 WB World Bowls 

 A is the code letter of the Licensed Manufacturer or Licensed Tester

 Numbers is the year that the stamp expires (in this example, 2013)

 R shows that the stamp is a registered trademark

 

 

 

2 The current World Bowls Stamp was introduced on 1 April 2002 and should be used on all new and re-tested bowls from that date. 

3 Both the International Bowling Board (IBB) and the World Bowls Board (WBB) stamps, which were used before the current World Bowls Stamp, will be valid until the end of the year that the stamp expires. (For example, the stamp in the above illustration would not be valid after 31 December 2013.)

 

4 If bowls are imprinted with the registered World Bowls Stamp and are in line with the Laws of the Sport of Bowls in all other ways, they can be used in all games under the control of WB or any Member National Authority.

5 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide the requirements for the stamps on bowls.

 

   

10 Measuring equipment 

  The umpire should bring, or be provided with by the club on whose green the game is being played, suitable equipment to carry out the duties described in law 56. This equipment should at least include:

 

a copy of the current Laws of the Sport of Bowls;

a tape measure at least 25 metres long;

equipment for measuring between the jack and bowls when the distances between them are beyond the range of a flexible measure (for example, a string measure or a telescopic measure);

a flexible measure (for example, a box measure or a bullet measure);

callipers;

feeler gauges;

wedges (for supporting leaning bowls); and

equipment (for deciding whether or not the jack or a bowl is within the side boundary of the rink when the side boundary is not marked by a green thread as described in law 5.9) such as:

a portable, retractable line;

a mirror and a square (both with a levelling bubble); or

a boundary scope.

 

Section 4 - Arranging a game

 

11 General form and length 

  1 A game of bowls should be played on one rink or on several rinks.

2 The game should consist of a pre-arranged number of shots or ends, or be played for a fixed period of time that is decided beforehand.

 

3 Ends should be played in turn from opposite directions, except as described in laws 28, 31, 33 and 48.

 

 

   

12 Choosing the rinks for play

  1 The skips, their representatives or the Controlling Body should make the draw for the rinks on which games are to be played.

2 In games where competing skips have previously been decided, the visiting skips, their representatives or the Controlling Body should make the draw to decide the numbers of the rinks to be played on.

 

3 If, before play starts, a player in a competition or game plays on the same rink on the day of the competition or game, that player will be disqualified. This does not apply to open tournaments

 

4 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide the requirements for playing on the same rink on the day of a competition or game.

 

   

13 Practice

  1 If a player or team that has not yet played is due to meet a player or team that has already played on the same day, the player or team that has not yet played can practise as long as:

 

the Controlling Body gives approval;

there is enough time available without delaying the competition; and

another rink is available apart from that on which the player or team has been drawn to play later that day.

 

2 If a player or team has already played on the same green on the same day, that player or team can practise in line with paragraph 1 above if they have a ‘bye’. (A player or team has a ‘bye’ in any round of a competition if they don’t have an opponent in that round.)

 

3 The Controlling Body should allocate the rink on which a player or team can practise.

 

4 If two players or two teams are entitled to practise:

 

they can practise together; and

the format of, and the number of bowls used in, the practice should be decided by the players concerned.

 

 

   

14 Play arrangements

  Games should be organised as:

 

a Singles game;

a team game;

a side game;

a series of Singles games, team games or side games; or

a tournament of games.

 

   

14.1 Singles game 

  A Singles game should be played between two opposing players. Players should play singly and in turn either two, three or four of a set of bowls as decided by the Controlling Body.

14.2 Pairs game

  A Pairs game should be played by two opposing teams, each with two players. Players should play singly and in turn either two, three or four of a set of bowls as decided by the Controlling Body.

 

The Controlling Body will also decide the order in which the players will play their bowls as follows.

 

If each player is playing four bowls:

the leads will play their four bowls followed by the skips playing their four bowls;

the leads will play two of their bowls, followed by the skips playing two of their bowls, followed by the leads playing their final two bowls, followed by the skips playing their final two bowls; or

in the first end and every following odd-numbered end, the leads will play two of their bowls, followed by the skips playing their four bowls, followed by the leads playing their final two bowls. In the second end and every following even-numbered end, the skips will play two of their bowls, followed by the leads playing their four bowls, followed by the skips playing their final two bowls.

If each player is playing two or three bowls:

the leads will play all their bowls, followed by skips playing all their bowls.

 

14.3 Triples game

  A Triples game should be played by two opposing teams, each with three players. Players should play singly and in turn either two or three of a set of bowls as decided by the Controlling Body.

   

14.4 Fours game

  A Fours game should be played by two opposing teams, each with four players. Players should play singly and in turn two of a set of bowls.

   

14.5 Side game

  A side game should be played by two opposing sides, each with the same number of teams or Singles players (or a combination of teams and Singles players).

14.6 A series of games

  Games in a series should be arranged to be played on several occasions as:

 

an ordered series of games organised as a knockout (eliminating) competition and arranged as Singles, Pairs, Triples or Fours; or

an ordered series of side games organised as either a league competition or a knockout (eliminating) competition.

 

14.7 A tournament of games

  1 Singles games and team games can be arranged into sections (or groups) as a tournament of games in which the contestants either:

 

play each other in turn;

play as paired-off teams of players; or

play in line with any other format decided by the Controlling Body.

 

2 The games can be played on one or several greens in line with a common timetable.

 

 

   

15 Sets play

   

15.1 Format of play

  1 Competitions played in the sets format should consist of sectional play, knockout (eliminating) play or a combination of both.

 

2 Each game should be played over the better of two sets, with each set consisting of nine ends or any other format agreed beforehand by the Controlling Body.

 

3 The winner of a set will be the player or team with the highest number of shots when the ninth end is completed. 

4 If the shot scores are tied after the ninth end of a set, the set will be a draw.

5 During sectional play, all nine ends of a set should be completed. 

6 During knockout play, there should be no further play in a set if, at any point, it becomes impossible for one player or team to draw or win the set, given the number of ends left.

 

 

15.2 Tie-breaker

  1 If the game is tied after the two sets have been completed (each player or team having won one set or both sets having been drawn), a tie-breaker consisting of three ends should be played to decide the winner.

 

2 The winner of the tie-breaker will be the player or team with the highest number of shots when the third end is completed.

 

3 There should be no further play in the tie-breaker if, at any point, it becomes impossible for one player or team to draw or win the tie-breaker, given the number of ends left.

4 If the shot scores are tied after the third end of the tie-breaker, the players or teams should play a fourth tie-breaker end to decide the winner. 

5 If the fourth end of a tie-breaker is a tied end, the players or teams will play more tie-breaker ends until a winner is found.

 

15.3 Winners of sectional play

  1 Points will be awarded as follows.

 

Two game points will be awarded for each game won. No game points are awarded for any game lost.

One set point will be awarded for each set won. A half set point will be awarded for each set drawn. No set points are awarded for any set lost. (The tie-breaker is not a set.)

If a game is forfeited, the non-offending player or team will be awarded two game points, two set points and a net total of shots that is equal to the average net total of shots scored by the winners of all other games played in the same round of the same section.

 

2 Section winners will be decided as follows.

 

Highest number of game points scored.

If game points are equal, the player or team with the highest number of sets won.

If game points and sets won are equal, the player or team with the highest net total of set points over all games in the section.

If game points, sets won and net totals of set points are equal, the player or team with the highest net total of shots over all games in the section (not including tie-breaker ends).

If game points, sets won, net totals of set points and net totals of shots are equal, the player or team that won the game between the players or teams that are equal.

 

 

15.4 First to play

  1 First set: the skips or opponents in Singles should toss a coin and the winner of the toss has the options described in law 18.2.2.

 

2 Second set: the winner of the first set has the options described in law 18.4. If the first set is a draw, the winner of the last scoring end in that set has the options described in law 18.4.

 

3 First, fourth and any further ends of a tie-breaker: the skips or opponents in Singles should toss a coin and the winner of the toss has the options described in law 18.2.2.

4 In all ends after the first in each set (including tie-breaker ends), the winner of the previous scoring end has the options described in law 18.4. If, however, the first end of the first set or the first end of a tie-breaker is a tied end, the first to play in that end should also play first in the second end of the first set or the second end of the tie-breaker.

 

15.5 Re-spotting the jack

  1 If a jack in motion passes completely outside the boundaries of the rink of play, or rebounds to a distance of less than 20 metres from the mat line, the end should not be declared dead. Instead, the jack should be placed with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line at the appropriate spot described in paragraphs 2, 3, 4 and 5 below, and play should continue.

 

2 If the jack passes outside the side boundary on the right of the rink, it should be placed with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line at a spot on the rink which is 2 metres from the front ditch and 1.5 metres to the right of the centre line.

 

3 If the jack passes outside the side boundary on the left of the rink, it should be placed with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line at a spot on the rink which is 2 metres from the front ditch and 1.5 metres to the left of the centre line.

4 If the jack passes over the face of the bank, it should be placed with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line at a spot on the rink which is 2 metres from the front ditch and on the centre line.

5 If the jack rebounds to a distance of less than 20 metres from the mat line, it should be placed:

 

with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line at the appropriate spot described in paragraphs 2 and 3 above; or

with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line at the spot described in paragraph 4 above if it comes to rest on the centre line.

 

6 If any of the spots mentioned in paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 above are partly or completely covered by a bowl, the jack should be placed with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line at a spot which is 0.5 metres further from the front ditch than the spot that has been covered. (If that spot is also partly or completely covered by a bowl, the jack should be placed at a spot which is 0.5 metres further from the front ditch than the spot that has been partly or completely covered.)

 

7 The spots mentioned in paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 above should be marked using chalk or some other suitable method (see diagram 3.1 in appendix B.2). Further spots, which are needed to meet the terms of paragraph 6 above, can also be marked using chalk or some other suitable method (see diagram 3.2 in appendix B.2). 

 

   

16 Formats of play

   

16.1 World events and Commonwealth Games

  1 Singles will be 21 shots (shots scored over 21 will not be counted), sets play or any other format decided beforehand by WB. Four bowls will be played, with each player playing in turn.

 

2 Pairs will be 18 ends, sets play or any other format decided beforehand by WB. Two, three or four bowls can be played, with each player playing in turn.

 

3 Triples will be 18 ends, sets play or any other format decided beforehand by WB. Two or three bowls can be played, with each player playing in turn.

4 Fours will be 18 ends, sets play or any other format decided beforehand by WB. Two bowls should be played, with each player playing in turn.

5 Changing the programme

 

The Controlling Body has the power to alter or amend the programme of the Championship as it considers necessary or appropriate if the weather or other conditions are unsuitable. The Controlling Body can also suspend play temporarily in any game or abandon any game, and it can also alter any of the conditions of its programme if it decides that this is essential to successfully carry out or finish the Championship.

 

16.2 International events

  1 Singles will be 21 shots (shots scored over 21 will not be counted), sets play or any other format agreed beforehand by WB. Four bowls will be played, with each player playing in turn.

 

2 Pairs will be 18 ends, sets play or any other format agreed beforehand by WB. Two, three or four bowls can be played, with each player playing in turn.

 

3 Triples will be 18 ends, sets play or any other format agreed beforehand by WB. Two or three bowls can be played, with each player playing in turn.

4 Fours will be 18 ends, sets play or any other format agreed beforehand by WB. Two bowls should be played, with each player playing in turn.

5 The formats of play for Singles, Pairs, Triples and Fours which are played as part of a side game will be the same as those described in paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4 above as appropriate.

 

6 For indoor play, there can be a time limit on play. The Controlling Body will decide the time limit before the game begins. If the time limit is reached while an end is in progress, the game will stop when that end is finished or when the pre-arranged number of shots or ends (described in paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4 above) has been played, whichever happens first.

7 Changing the programme

 

The Controlling Body has the power to alter or amend the programme of the Championship as it considers necessary or appropriate if the weather or other conditions are unsuitable or, in the case of indoor play, if there is a power failure and the lighting is affected. The Controlling Body can also suspend play temporarily in any game or abandon any game, and it can also alter any of the conditions of its programme if it decides that this is essential to successfully carry out or finish the Championship.

 

16.3 Domestic events

  The formats of play for Singles, Pairs, Triples, Fours and side games will be decided by the Controlling Body.

 

   

17 Regulations for play

   

17.1 Domestic regulations 

  1 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can make regulations (‘domestic regulations’) to cover the following aspects of the sport:

 

the use of synthetic surfaces (see law 2.4);

standards for greens constructed in line with previous editions of the Laws of the Sport of Bowls (see law 2.5);

standards for the minimum width of a rink (see law 5.1);

standards for boundary pegs made in line with previous editions of the Laws of the Sport of Bowls (see law 5.5);

requirements for thin black vertical lines to mark the centres of boundary pegs that are fixed to the face of the bank of an outdoor green or fixed on the top of the bank of either an outdoor or an indoor green (see law 5.5);

the use of boundary threads (see law 5.9);

distinguishing marks on bowls (see law 8.1.5);

re-testing and re-stamping bowls (see law 8.2.3);

the deposit to be paid when a challenge to bowls is lodged (see law 8.3.4);

requirements for the stamps on bowls (see law 9.5);

requirements for playing on the same rink on the day of a competition or game (see law 12.4);

re-spotting the jack in formats of play other than sets play (see law 15.5);

the use of a scoreboard instead of one of the score cards (see law 37.3.2);

artificial devices for delivering the jack or a bowl (see law 38.5);

substitute players (see law 51.9);

colours for footwear and the types of sole (see appendix A.2); and

colours and types of clothing, including bowling gloves (see appendix A.3).

 

2 If there is no domestic regulation to cover a specific aspect of the sport listed in paragraph 1 above, all games will be played in line with the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.

 

3 Member National Authorities should give a copy of their domestic regulations to all divisions and clubs within their authority.

 

17.2 Conditions of Play 

  Controlling Bodies should decide what Conditions of Play are necessary to govern their competitions, but all Conditions of Play should be in line with the requirements described in appendix A.1. 

 

Section 5 - The game

 

18 Starting the game 

   

18.1 Trial ends

  1 Before the start of play in any game, or before continuing an unfinished game on another day, one trial end should be played in each direction. 

2 For domestic play, the Controlling Body can limit the number of trial ends to be played (no trial ends or one trial end in one direction). It can also decide whether the trial ends are played immediately before or immediately after the scheduled start time for the game.

 

3 Trial ends should be played on the same rink that the game will be played on.

 

4 Each player should not use more than the number of bowls being used during the game.

5 Each player can use any combination of bowls taken from different sets of bowls.

6 The opponents of the team which started the first trial end should start the second trial end.

7 The team which starts the trial end should place the mat, deliver the jack and place the jack on the centre line of the rink at a distance they choose from the mat line (the distance should not be changed during the course of the trial end).

8 When each bowl comes to rest, any player or the marker can remove it and place it towards the front ditch.

9 If a bowl moves the jack, the jack should be put back to its former position. 

 

18.2 Tossing for opening play

  1 The managers in a side game (or, in their absence, representatives of the sides), skips in a team game or opponents in Singles should toss a coin.

2 The winner of the toss should choose whether to:

 

place the mat and deliver the jack and the first bowl; or

tell the opposing player to place the mat and deliver the jack and the first bowl (the opposing player cannot refuse).

 

3 The option chosen by the manager or representative who wins the toss in a side game will apply to all teams or Singles players (or a combination of teams and Singles players) who make up the side.

 

 

18.3 The start of play

  1 In any game, the start of play is the delivery of the jack by the first player to play in the first end.

2 In any end, the start of play is the delivery of the jack by the first player to play in that end.

 

 

18.4 Play in other ends

  In all ends after the first but apart from in an extra end, the winner of the previous scoring end should choose whether to:

 

place the mat and deliver the jack and the first bowl; or

tell the opposing player to place the mat and deliver the jack and the first bowl (the opposing player cannot refuse).

 

   

19 Placing the mat

   

19.1 At the start of each end

  1 Before the start of play in each end, the player to play first should place the centre line of the mat lengthwise along the centre line of the rink, with the mat line at least 2 metres from the rear ditch and at least 25 metres from the front ditch. 

2 If, before the jack has been delivered, a player or the marker finds that the mat has not been placed as described in paragraph 1 above, the player to play first should correctly position the mat.

 

3 If, after the jack has been delivered but before the first bowl is delivered, a player or the marker finds that the mat line has not been positioned within the distances described in paragraph 1 above, the opposing player should place the mat as described in paragraph 1 and re-deliver the jack, making sure that it is centred, but the opposing player should not play first.

4 After the first player to play has delivered the first bowl, no-one has the right to challenge the legality of the original distance of the mat line from the rear and front ditches. 

5 If one or more groundsheets are to be used (outdoor play only), the Controlling Body should consult the nominated greenkeeper and then decide where the groundsheets will be placed for the first end and every end after that. The mat line should be placed on the rear edge of the groundsheet.

 

19.2 During each end

  After the start of play in any end, the mat should not be moved from its original position except in the following circumstances.

 

1 If the mat is displaced, it should be replaced in its original position. 

2 If the mat is out of line with the centre line, it should be straightened on that line.

 

3 If the mat is off the centre line, it should be moved to that line.

4 If a player picks up the mat before the end has been completed, an opposing player should replace the mat in its original position.

5 If a bowl from a neighbouring rink, moving in its original course and on a bias which will take it back into its own rink, is travelling on a path which will bring it into contact with the mat, any player on the rink on which the mat is being used can lift it so that the bowl can pass and then replace the mat in its original position.

6 After the last bowl required to be played in each end has been delivered, a player or the marker should lift the mat and place it completely beyond the face of the rear bank. Opponents in Singles can, however, agree to carry the mat up the rink so that they can use it at the next end. 

 

   

20 Position on the mat

  1 Before delivery a player should be standing on the mat with one foot fully on the mat. At the moment they deliver the jack or a bowl, the player should have all or part of one foot on or above the mat. 

2 Before delivery a player using an approved wheelchair should have one wheel on the mat and, at the moment they deliver the jack or a bowl, the player should have all or part of one wheel on or above the mat.

 

3 Any player not meeting the terms of this law is committing a foot-fault, and law 21 will apply.

 

   

21 Foot-faulting

  1 If the umpire, either by their own observation or on appeal by one of the skips or opponents in Singles, decides that a player has not met the terms of law 20, the umpire should, on the first occasion, warn the player in the presence of the skip and advise the manager or the coach when they are present that a warning has been given.

 

2 On each occasion after this, the umpire should have the player’s bowl stopped and declared dead.

 

3 If it has not been possible to stop the bowl and it disturbs the head, the opponent should choose whether to:

 

replace the head;

leave the head as altered; or

declare the end dead.

 

4 If a player has been given a warning and still fails to meet the terms of law 20 while delivering the jack, law 23.2 will apply.

 

   

22 Delivering the jack

  1 Before the jack is delivered, the mat should be placed as described in law 19.1.1. The player to play first should deliver the jack and make sure that it is centred.

 

2 If the jack in its original course comes to rest less than 2 metres from the front ditch, it should be placed on the centre line of the rink with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line being 2 metres from the front ditch. This should be done by:

 

placing the jack at a mark on the centre line of the rink measuring a distance of 2 metres from the front ditch (see diagram 1 in appendix B.3); or

placing the jack alongside the edge of a 2-metre measuring device (for example, a thin wooden batten which is 2 metres long - see diagram 2 in appendix B.3)

 

3 If, in its original course, the jack is displaced by one of the other players, law 33.1.1 will apply.

 

4 If, in its original course, the jack is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object, law 33.3.1 will apply.

5 If, before a bowl has been played by each team, a player notices that the wrong team has delivered the jack, the correct team will re-start the end.

6 If, after a bowl has been played by each team, a player notices that the wrong team has delivered the jack, play in that end should continue in that order.

7 After the first player to play has delivered the first bowl, no-one has the right to challenge the legality of the original position of the jack. 

 

   

23 Improper delivery of the jack

  1 The jack has been improperly delivered if it comes to rest:

 

in the ditch;

completely outside the boundaries of the rink;

less than 23 metres from the mat line after the jack has been centred;

on the rink after contact with the face of the bank; or

on the rink after contact with any object or person completely outside the boundaries of the rink.

 

2 If a player improperly delivers the jack, the opposing player should place the mat as described in law 19.1.1 and re-deliver the jack, making sure that it is centred, but the opposing player should not play first.

 

3 If the jack is improperly delivered once by each player in any end, it should not be delivered again in that end. Instead, it should be centred with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line being 2 metres from the front ditch, and the mat should be placed as described in law 19.1.1 by the first player to play.

 

4 If the jack is improperly delivered once by each player and the end is then declared dead, law 31.4 will apply.

 

Section 6 - Movement of bowls

 

24 Touchers

  1 A bowl in its original course which touches the jack, even though it comes to rest in the ditch within the boundaries of the rink of play, is a live bowl and is called a toucher. If a bowl in its original course does not touch the jack, it is called a

non-toucher.

2 A bowl is also a toucher if, after having come to rest:

 

it falls and touches the jack before the next bowl is delivered; or

in the case of the last bowl of an end, it falls and touches the jack within the period of 30 seconds that applies under law 40.1.

 

3 No bowl will be a toucher if it plays onto, or comes into contact with, the jack when the jack is in the ditch.

 

4 The position of a toucher in the ditch should be marked by a brightly coloured indicator not more than 50 millimetres wide and not more than 100 millimetres high, and which is fixed vertically either against the face of the bank or on top of the bank, immediately in line with the toucher. As well as the indicator, if the surface of the ditch is sand, lines can be drawn in the sand around the toucher. If the surface of the ditch is vegetation or synthetic, the lines can be drawn with chalk.

 

   

25 Marking a toucher

  1 A toucher should be marked with chalk by a member of the team that delivered the bowl or the marker as soon as it comes to rest.

2 If, in the opinion of either skip or opponent or the marker, a toucher comes to rest in a position in which marking it would be likely to move the bowl or alter the head, the bowl should not be marked but nominated as a toucher instead.

 

3 If, before the next delivered bowl comes to rest or, in the case of the last bowl of an end, before a period of 30 seconds that applies under law 40.1, a bowl is neither marked nor nominated, it is no longer a toucher.

 

4 If a bowl has been nominated as either a toucher or a non-toucher, and both skips or the opponents in Singles agree that further movement of the bowl means it should no longer be nominated, the bowl should be marked or have its mark removed as appropriate.

5 If a player fails to remove a mark from a bowl before delivery and that bowl does not become a toucher, a member of the opposing team or the marker should remove the mark as soon as the bowl comes to rest.

6 If, in the opinion of either skip or opponent or the marker, a wrongly marked bowl comes to rest in such a position that removing the mark would be likely to move the bowl or alter the head, the mark should not be removed and the bowl should instead be nominated as a non-toucher.

 

   

26 Movement of touchers

  1 The position of a toucher in the ditch will be validly altered if the toucher is moved by:

 

a jack in play;

another toucher in play; or

a non-toucher while it is partly on the rink and partly overhanging the ditch, as long as part of the non-toucher is still on the rink when it comes to rest after it has moved the toucher.

 

2 If a toucher in the ditch is moved by a non-toucher entering the ditch, law 28.7 will apply.

 

3 If, once its position has been marked, there is further valid movement of a toucher in the ditch as described in paragraph 1 above, its new position should be marked as described in law 24.4 by moving the indicators and removing and redrawing the lines as appropriate.

 

 

   

27 Dead bowl 

  1 A bowl is a dead bowl if:

 

it is not a toucher and comes to rest in the ditch;

it is not a toucher and rebounds onto the rink after contact with the face of the bank or with the jack or a toucher in the ditch;

after completing its original course or after being moved as a result of play, it comes to rest less than 14 metres as measured in a straight line from the mat line;

it passes completely outside the boundaries of the rink of play after being moved as a result of play;

in its original course, it passes outside a side boundary of the rink on a bias which would prevent it from re-entering the rink of play; or

in its original course, it comes to rest outside a side boundary of the rink even though it may have come to rest in contact with the outside edge of a line jack.

 

2 A bowl is not a dead bowl if:

 

it is carried by a player while inspecting the head;

in its original course, it comes to rest within the boundaries of the rink even though it may have passed outside a side boundary of the rink during its course;

it is a toucher which rebounds from the face of the bank onto the rink of play;

it is a toucher which comes to rest on top of the jack or another toucher at rest in the ditch; or

it comes to rest on top of the jack or any bowls that are at rest within the boundaries of the rink.

 

3 The skips or opponents in Singles should decide whether a bowl is dead or not as soon as they realise it is necessary. (If the players do not realise that a decision is necessary as soon as the bowl comes to rest, the decision can still be made even if a number of bowls have been played after the bowl in question came to rest.) If they cannot reach agreement, they should ask the umpire to make a decision.

 

4 A dead bowl should be removed from the rink of play as soon as it has been declared dead.

 

   

28 Bowl displacement

   

28.1 Bowl displacement by another player

  1 Displacement of a bowl in its original course that has not disturbed the head before it is displaced

 

If the bowl is displaced by a member of the team that delivered the bowl and it has not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the opposing skip should declare the bowl dead.

If the bowl is displaced by a member of the team that delivered the bowl and it has disturbed the head after it is displaced, the opposing skip should:

replace the head; and

declare the bowl dead.

If the bowl is displaced by an opponent and it has not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skip of the team that played the bowl should choose whether to:

have the bowl replayed;

place the bowl where the skip believes it would have come to rest; or

leave the bowl where it came to rest.

If the bowl is displaced by an opponent and it has disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skip of the team that played the bowl should choose whether to:

replace the head and have the bowl replayed;

replace the head and place the bowl where the skip believes it would have come to rest; or

declare the end dead.

 

2 Displacement of a bowl in its original course that has disturbed the head before it is displaced

 

If a bowl has disturbed the head before it is displaced by a player, this disturbance is valid. (The opposing skip should not replace any part of the head that has been disturbed before the displacement.)

If the bowl is displaced by a player and it has not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the opposing skip should choose whether to:

place the bowl where the skip believes it would have come to rest; or

leave the bowl where it came to rest.

If the bowl is displaced by a player and it has disturbed the head after it is displaced, the opposing skip should replace any part of the head disturbed after the displacement and choose whether to:

place the bowl where the skip believes it would have come to rest; or

leave the bowl where it came to rest.

 

3 Displacement of a bowl in motion

 

If a bowl in motion is displaced by a player and it has not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the opposing skip should choose whether to:

place the bowl where the skip believes it would have come to rest; or

declare the end dead.

If a bowl in motion is displaced by a player and it has disturbed the head after it is displaced, the opposing skip should choose whether to:

place the bowl where the skip believes it would have come to rest and replace any part of the head disturbed after the displacement; or

declare the end dead.

 

4 Displacement of a bowl at rest

 

If a bowl at rest or a toucher in the ditch is displaced by a player and it has not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the opposing skip should put the bowl back to its former position.

If a bowl at rest or a toucher in the ditch is displaced by a player and it has disturbed the head after it is displaced, the opposing skip should put the bowl back to its former position and replace any part of the head disturbed after the displacement.

 

 

   

28.2 Bowl displacement by a wheelchair

  If a bowl is displaced by a wheelchair, the wheelchair should be treated as if it was the wheelchair player for all purposes under law 28.1.

 

28.3 Bowl displacement by a neutral person or neutral object

  1 Displacement of a bowl in its original course that has not disturbed the head before it is displaced

 

If the bowl is displaced within the boundaries of the rink of play by a neutral person or neutral object and it has not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the bowl should be replayed.

If the bowl is displaced within the boundaries of the rink of play by a neutral person or neutral object and it has disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skips or opponents in Singles should agree how to replace the head and then have the bowl replayed. If they cannot agree, they should declare the end dead.

If the bowl, running on a bias that would have brought it back into the rink of play, is displaced outside the boundaries of the rink of play by a neutral person or neutral object and it has not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the bowl should be replayed.

If the bowl, running on a bias that would have brought it back into the rink of play, is displaced outside the boundaries of the rink of play by a neutral person or neutral object and it has disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skips or opponents in Singles should agree how to replace the head and then have the bowl replayed. If they cannot agree, they should declare the end dead.

 

2 Displacement of a bowl in its original course that has disturbed the head before it is displaced

 

If a bowl has disturbed the head before it is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object, this disturbance is valid. (The skips or opponents in Singles should not replace any part of the head that has been disturbed before the displacement.)

If the bowl is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object and it has not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skips or opponents in Singles should agree where the bowl would have come to rest. If they cannot agree, they should declare the end dead.

If the bowl is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object and it has disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skips or opponents in Singles should agree where the bowl would have come to rest and how to replace any part of the head disturbed after the displacement. If they cannot agree, they should declare the end dead.

 

3 Displacement of a bowl in motion

 

If a bowl in motion is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object and it has not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skips or opponents in Singles should agree where the bowl would have come to rest. If they cannot agree, they should declare the end dead.

If a bowl in motion is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object and it has disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skips or opponents in Singles should agree where the bowl would have come to rest and how to replace any part of the head disturbed after the displacement. If they cannot agree, they should declare the end dead.

 

4 Displacement of a bowl at rest

 

If a bowl at rest is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object and it has not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skips or opponents in Singles should agree on the position of the bowl. If they cannot agree, they should declare the end dead.

If a bowl at rest is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object and it has disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skips or opponents in Singles should agree on the position of the bowl and how to replace any part of the head disturbed after the displacement. If they cannot agree, they should declare the end dead.

 

 

28.4 Bowl displacement when being marked as a toucher or during measuring

  1 If a bowl is displaced by a player when marking it as a toucher, or by the equipment being used by a player during measuring, an opponent should put it back to its former position.

 

2 If a bowl is displaced by the marker when marking it as a toucher, or by the equipment being used by the marker during measuring, the marker should put the bowl back to a position agreed by the opponents. If the opponents cannot agree, the marker should put the bowl back to its former position.

 

3 If a bowl is displaced by the equipment being used by the umpire during measuring, the umpire should put the bowl back to its former position.

 

 

28.5 Bowl displacement by a rebounding non-toucher

  1 Displacement of a bowl in its original course

 

If a bowl in its original course is displaced by a non-toucher rebounding from the face of the bank, an opponent or the marker should place the displaced bowl where they believe it would have come to rest.

 

2 Displacement of a bowl in motion

 

If a bowl in motion is displaced by a non-toucher rebounding from the face of the bank, the skips or opponents in Singles should put the displaced bowl where they believe it would have come to rest. If they cannot agree on the bowl’s final position, the end should be declared dead.

 

3 Displacement of a bowl at rest

 

If a bowl at rest or a toucher in the ditch is displaced by a non-toucher rebounding from the face of the bank, an opponent or the marker should put it back to its former position.

 

 

28.6 Bowl displacement by a bowl from a neighbouring rink

  1 If a bowl at rest on the rink is in danger of being moved by a bowl from a neighbouring rink, any player at the head can choose whether to:

 

lift the bowl at rest to allow the other bowl to pass and then replace it, as long as this action would not influence the outcome of the head; or

stop the bowl from the neighbouring rink.

 

2 If, during a Singles game, a bowl at rest on the rink is in danger of being moved by a bowl from a neighbouring rink, the marker should stop the bowl from the neighbouring rink.

 

3 If a bowl that has been stopped was in its original course and was delivered on a bias that would have taken it back into its own rink, it should be replayed.

 

 

28.7 Bowl displacement by a dead bowl

  If a toucher in the ditch is displaced by a dead bowl from the rink of play, an opponent or the marker should put it back to its former position.

 

Section 7 - Movement of the jack

 

29 Live jack in the ditch 

  1 A jack that is moved by a bowl in play into the front ditch within the side boundaries of the rink of play is a live jack. 

2 The position of a jack in the ditch should be marked by a white indicator, which is not more than 50 millimetres wide and not more than 100 millimetres high and is placed vertically either against the face of the bank or on top of the bank, immediately in line with the jack. As well as the indicator, if the surface of the ditch is sand, lines can be drawn in the sand around the jack. If the surface of the ditch is vegetation or synthetic, the lines can be drawn with chalk.

 

3 The position of a jack in the ditch will be validly altered if the jack is moved by either:

 

a toucher in play; or

a non-toucher while it is partly on the rink and partly overhanging the ditch, as long as part of the non-toucher is still on the rink when it comes to rest after it has moved the jack.

 

4 If a jack in the ditch is displaced by a non-toucher entering the ditch, law 33.5.2 will apply.

5 If, once its position has been marked, there is further valid movement of a jack in the ditch (as described in paragraph 3 above), its new position should be marked (as described in paragraph 2 above) by moving the indicators or removing and redrawing the lines as appropriate.

 

   

30 Dead jack

  1 If the jack is moved by a bowl in play, it is a dead jack if it:

 

passes above the face of the bank;

passes completely outside a side boundary of the rink of play;

comes to rest in any hollow in the face of the bank; or

comes to rest at a distance of less than 20 metres as measured in a straight line from the mat line.

 

2 A jack is not a dead jack if it comes to rest:

 

on top of a toucher at rest in the ditch; or

on top of any bowls that are at rest within the boundaries of the rink.

 

3 The skips or opponents in Singles should decide whether a jack is dead or not as soon as they realise it is necessary. (If the players do not realise that a decision is necessary as soon as the jack comes to rest, the decision can still be made even if a number of bowls have been played after the jack came to rest.) If they cannot reach agreement, they should ask the umpire to make a decision.

 

4 If the jack is dead, the end is a dead end and law 31 will apply.

 

   

31 Dead end 

  1 A dead end is not counted as a completed end even if all the bowls required to be played have been played.

 

2 A dead end should be replayed in the same direction unless the skips or opponents in Singles agree to play it in the opposite direction.

 

3 If the jack and bowls need to be transferred to the opposite end of the rink before the end is replayed, they should be carried up the rink.

 

4 If the skips or opponents in Singles or the umpire declare an end dead, the first to play in that end should also play first when the end is replayed.

 

   

32 Rebounding jack

  The end will continue if:

 

when the jack is at rest on the rink, it is driven against the face of the bank and rebounds onto the rink of play; or

when the jack is at rest in the ditch, it is moved by a toucher and this takes it back onto the rink.

 

   

33 Jack displacement

   

33.1 Jack displacement by another player

  1 Displacement of a jack in its original course

 

If a jack in its original course is displaced by a member of the team that delivered the jack, the opposing lead should place the mat as described in law 19.1.1 and re-deliver the jack, making sure that it is centred, but should not play first.

If a jack in its original course is displaced by an opponent, it should be

re-delivered by the same player.

 

2 Displacement of a jack in motion

 

If a jack in motion is displaced by a player, the opposing skip or opponent in Singles can choose whether to:

 

place the jack where they believe it would have come to rest and replace any part of the head disturbed by the displaced jack; or

declare the end dead.

 

3 Displacement of a jack at rest

 

If a jack at rest within the rink of play is displaced by a player, the opposing skip or opponent in Singles should put the jack back to its former position.

 

 

33.2 Jack displacement by a wheelchair

  If a jack is displaced by a wheelchair, the wheelchair should be treated as if it was the wheelchair player for all purposes under law 33.1.

 

33.3 Jack displacement by a neutral person or neutral object

  1 Displacement of a jack in its original course

 

If a jack in its original course is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object, it should be re-delivered by the same player.

 

2 Displacement of a jack in motion

 

If a jack in motion is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object, the skips or opponents in Singles should place the jack where they believe it would have come to rest. If they cannot agree on the jack’s final position, the end should be declared dead.

 

3 Displacement of a jack at rest

 

If a jack at rest within the rink of play is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object, it should be put back to its former position. If the skips or opponents in Singles cannot agree on the jack’s former position, the end should be declared dead.

 

 

33.4 Jack displacement during measuring

  1 If the jack is displaced by the equipment being used by a player during measuring, an opponent should put it back to its former position.

 

2 If the jack is displaced by the equipment being used by the marker during measuring, the marker should put the jack back to a position agreed by the opponents. If the opponents cannot agree, the marker should put the jack back to its former position.

 

3 If the jack is displaced by the equipment being used by the umpire during measuring, the umpire should put the jack back to its former position.

 

 

33.5 Jack displacement by a non-toucher

  1 If a jack at rest on the rink is displaced by a non-toucher rebounding from the face of the bank, an opponent or the marker should put it back to its former position.

 

2 If a jack at rest in the ditch is displaced by a non-toucher entering the ditch, an opponent or the marker should put it back to its former position.

 

3 If a jack in motion is displaced by a non-toucher rebounding from the face of the bank, the skips or opponents in Singles should put the jack where they believe it would have come to rest. If they cannot agree on the jack’s final position, the end should be declared dead.

 

 

33.6 Jack displacement by a bowl from a neighbouring rink

  If a jack at rest on the rink is in danger of being moved by a bowl from a neighbouring rink, any player at the head or the marker should stop the bowl. If the bowl was in its original course and was delivered on a bias that would have taken it back into its own rink, it should be replayed.

 

Section 8 - Play, players and their duties

 

34 Team play 

   

34.1 Number of players

  A team should consist of two, three or four players as defined in law 1.2.3.

 

34.2 Order of play

  1 The leads should play their bowls in turn, followed by each pair of players in their order of play.

2 If a player delivers a bowl before the previous bowl has come to rest, the umpire should, on the first occasion, warn the player in the presence of the skip and advise the manager or the coach when they are present that a warning has been given. On each occasion after this, the umpire should declare the player’s bowl dead. If that bowl has disturbed the head, the opposing skip or opponent in Singles should choose whether to:

 

replace the head;

leave the head as altered; or

declare the end dead.

 

3 The positions of players within a team should not be changed after the first end has been completed unless the change is necessary because a substitute is introduced as described in law 51.

 

4 If players in a team game change positions when paragraph 3 above does not apply, the team will be disqualified and they will forfeit the game to their opponents.

 

5 If players in a side game change positions within a team when paragraph 3 above does not apply, or if they change teams, the side will be disqualified and they will forfeit the game to their opponents.

 

   

35 Possession of the rink

  1 Possession of the rink will belong to the player or team whose bowl is being played.

2 As soon as each bowl comes to rest, possession of the rink will transfer to the opposing player or team after allowing time for marking a toucher as soon as it comes to rest.

 

3 If the umpire, either by their own observation or on appeal by one of the skips or opponents in Singles, decides that the players in possession of the rink are being interfered with, annoyed or distracted in any way by their opponents, the umpire should, on the first occasion, warn the offending player in the presence of the skip and advise the manager or the coach when they are present that a warning has been given.

 

4 On each occasion after this, the umpire should have the bowl last played by the offending player or team declared dead. If that bowl has disturbed the head, the opponent should choose whether to:

 

replace the head;

leave the head as altered; or

declare the end dead.

 

 

   

36 Position of players

    

36.1 In relation to the rink of play

  1 Players at the mat-end of the rink who are not delivering a bowl should stand at least 1 metre behind the mat.

2 Players at the head-end of the rink who are not controlling play should stand:

 

behind the jack and away from the head;

on the surrounds of the green if the jack is in the ditch; or

well clear of the head if it is not possible to stand on the surrounds.

 

3 As soon as a bowl is delivered, a player who is controlling play, if they are in front of the jack, should take their position as described in paragraph 2 above.

4 If a player does not meet the terms of this law, law 35 will apply.

 

 

36.2 In relation to a neighbouring rink

  1 A player should not go into a neighbouring rink where play is in progress.

2 A player should neither go into nor walk along a neighbouring rink, even if it is not being used, while an opponent is about to deliver or is actually delivering a bowl.

 

3 If the rink of play is an outside rink (see law 5.6), a player should neither go into nor walk along the section of green that lies between the outside side boundary of the rink and the side ditch while an opponent is about to deliver or is actually delivering a bowl.

 

4 If a player does not meet the terms of this law, law 35 will apply.

 

 

   

37 Players and their duties 

   

37.1 The skip

  1 The skip will have sole charge of the team and all players in the team should follow the skip’s instructions.

2 The skip should decide all disputed points with the opposing skip, making sure that any decision reached is in line with the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.

 

3 If the skips need to check any part of the Laws of the Sport of Bowls before reaching a decision, they should ask the umpire for an explanation.

 

4 If the umpire considers that a decision reached by the skips is not in line with the Laws of the Sport of Bowls, the umpire should overrule that decision so that it is in line with the laws.

 

5 If the skips cannot reach agreement on any disputed point, they should ask the umpire to make a decision. The umpire’s decision is final.

6 If the Controlling Body has not appointed an umpire, the skips should choose a competent neutral person to act as the umpire.

7 The skip in a Pairs game should perform the duties of the second, as described in law 37.3.

 

8 Skips can, at any time, delegate their own powers and any of their own duties (except those described in paragraph 7 above) to any other members of the team as long as they tell the opposing skip immediately.

 

37.2 The third

  The third can measure any and all disputed shots.

37.3 The second

  1 The second should:

 

be responsible for the score card supplied by the Controlling Body while play is in progress;

enter the names of all players of both teams on the score card;

record, on the score card, all shots scored for and against the team as each end is completed;

compare the score card with that of the opposing second as each end is completed; and

at the end of the game, hand the score card to the skip who should record on it the time that the game finished and then sign it.

 

2 If a Member National Authority agrees to a scoreboard being used instead of one of the score cards, the second of the team which won the toss for opening play should update the scoreboard and the opposing second should deal with the score card as described in paragraph 1 above.

 

 

37.4 The lead

  The lead of the team to play first in an end should:

 

place the mat as described in law 19.1.1; and

deliver the jack and make sure that it is centred before delivering the first bowl of the end.

 

37.5 Other duties

  Along with the duties mentioned in the previous paragraphs of law 37, players can carry out any other duties assigned to them by their skip as described in law 37.1.8.

 

   

38 Players with disabilities

  1 Wheelchairs should be of a type approved by both WB and the Governing Body for wheelchair bowlers in the country in which the player is playing.

 

2 A player who has a physical disability will be allowed to use a support or an artificial limb (or both) when delivering the jack or a bowl, or when walking on the green. The support should have a base covered with rubber or a similar material. This base should measure at least 76 millimetres across, and it can be placed on or next to the mat.

 

3 Partially sighted and blind bowlers can use any form of assistance necessary (including having an assistant with them) to allow them to take part in the sport of bowls, as long as the assistance is approved by the Governing Body for partially sighted and blind bowlers in the country in which the player is playing.

4 The person assisting a partially sighted or blind bowler will not be breaking law 58.3 if the assistant:

 

repeats the skip’s instructions to the player;

helps to direct the player; or

tells the player where the jack or a bowl came to rest.

 

5 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can approve the use of artificial devices for delivering the jack or a bowl. 

 

 Section 9 - Result of an end

 

39 The shot

  1 A shot or shots refers to the bowl or bowls (called shot bowls) which is or are nearer to the jack than the nearest bowl played by the opposing team or opponent in Singles.

2 No bowl should be moved until the opponents have agreed whether it is a shot or not, except where a bowl has to be moved so that another bowl can be measured.

 

3 As the shots are agreed, each shot bowl can be removed from the head.

 

4 Shot bowls can be placed in a group where they will not interfere with measuring.

 

5 If shot bowls have been placed in a group, the number of bowls in the group should be agreed by the opponents.

6 The skips and the seconds or the marker where appropriate should be told (or have signalled to them) the number of shots scored in each end.

 

   

40 Deciding the number of shots scored

  1 The process of deciding the number of shots scored should not start until the last bowl required to be played in an end has come to rest, or 30 seconds after that if either skip or opponent in Singles asks for this 30-second period (for example, to see whether or not a bowl lying at an angle will fall of its own accord within that time).

 

2 If either skip or opponent in Singles has asked for a 30-second period, no bowl which is likely to fall should be secured during that period.

 

3 No measuring will be allowed before the process of deciding the number of shots scored starts (as described in paragraph 1 above).

 

4 All measurements should be made between the nearest points of the jack and the bowl.

 

5 When measuring between a jack in the ditch and a bowl on the green or a jack on the green and a bowl in the ditch, the measurement should be carried out using a flexible or string measure whenever possible.

6 At any time during the process of deciding the number of shots scored:

 

if a bowl is likely to fall, either opponent can use the best available means to secure it in its position;

if a bowl needs to be measured and it is currently resting on another bowl which is interfering with the measurement in any way, any player should use the best available means to secure the resting bowl in its position and then remove the other bowl;

if a bowl falls of its own accord, it should be left in its new position while deciding the number of shots scored continues, and all the shots agreed before the bowl fell will count;

if a bowl is displaced by the equipment being used during measuring, law 28.4 will apply; and

if the jack is displaced by the equipment being used during measuring, law 33.4 will apply.

 

 

   

41 No shot scored – tied end

  1 There will be no shot scored by either team if it is agreed that:

 

the nearest bowl of each team is touching the jack;

the nearest bowl of each team is the same distance from the jack; or

no live bowls are left within the boundaries of the rink of play.

 

2 The end should be declared tied and recorded on the score card as a completed end.

 

3 Following a tied end, law 18.4 will apply.

 

4 If, however, the first end is a tied end, the first to play in that end should also play first in the second end.

 

 

   

42 Delivering the final bowl of an end

  It is not compulsory for the last player to play in any end to deliver the final bowl of the end, but the player should tell the opposing skip or opponent in Singles of the decision not to deliver the final bowl before the process of deciding the number of shots scored starts (as described in law 40.1). This decision is final.

 

Section 10 - Game decisions

 

43 Games played on one occasion

  1 In Singles games, team games or side games played on one occasion or at any stage of a knockout (eliminating) competition, victory will be awarded to the player, team or side that, when the game finishes and in line with the Conditions of Play, has:

 

the highest total score of shots;

the highest number of ends won;

the highest number of sets; or

a combination of the highest total score of shots, the highest number of ends won and the highest number of sets as decided by the Controlling Body.

 

2 If competitions or games are played for a fixed length of time, the Controlling Body will be responsible for making sure that Conditions of Play are in place to cover these competitions or games.

 

 

   

44 Tournament games and games in a series

  1 In tournament games or games in a series, victory will be awarded to the player, team or side that, when the tournament or series of games finishes and in line with the Conditions of Play, has:

 

the highest number of games won; or

the highest net total of shots.

 

2 The Controlling Body will be responsible for making sure that Conditions of Play are in place to decide the winner if, in line with the Conditions of Play mentioned in paragraph 1 above, two or more players, teams or sides are equal.

 

3 Points can be awarded for games won or drawn.

4 If points are equal, the Controlling Body will divide the total of shots scored against each player, team or side into the total of shots it has scored. The player, team or side with the highest result will be declared the winner.

 

   

45 A drawn game in a knockout (eliminating) competition

  1 In a knockout (eliminating) competition with a fixed number of ends, if the scores are equal when all ends have been played, an extra end should be played to decide the result.

 

2 The managers in a side game (or, in their absence, representatives of the sides), skips in a team game or opponents in Singles should toss a coin and the winner will decide who should play first as described in laws 18.2.2 and 18.2.3.

 

3 The extra end should be played from where the previous end was completed.

4 If an extra end is completed and the scores are still equal, another extra end should be played.

5 If more than one extra end is needed, the managers or representatives, skips or opponents should again toss a coin, and the winner will decide who should play first.

6 If an extra end is declared dead, law 31.4 will apply.

 

 Section 11 - Defaults of players in Fours play

 

46 Absentee players in a team or side

   

46.1 In a team game

  1 In a team game, the Controlling Body will decide on the eligibility of each member of the team. If a team introduces an ineligible player, the defaulting team will forfeit the game to their opponents.

2 If, within 30 minutes after the scheduled start time for a game, one or more players are absent from a team, the defaulting team will forfeit the game to their opponents.

 

 

46.2 In a side game

  1 In a side game, the Controlling Body will decide on the eligibility of each member of the side. If a side introduces an ineligible player, the defaulting side will forfeit the game to their opponents.

2 If, within 30 minutes after the scheduled start time for a game, one player is absent from one or more teams in a side, the game should continue but:

 

the number of bowls played by each defaulting team should be made up by the lead and second, both playing three bowls; and

one fourth of the total shots scored (including decimal places) by each defaulting team should be deducted from their score after the game has finished.

 

Section 12 - Irregularities

 

47 Irregularities during play

   

47.1 Playing out of turn

  1 If a player plays out of turn, the opposing skip can stop the bowl and return it to the player to play it in the proper order.

2 If the bowl has come to rest and has not disturbed the head, the opposing skip should choose whether to:

 

leave the head as it is and have their team play two bowls one after the other to get back to the proper order of play; or

return the bowl and get back to the proper order of play.

 

3 If the bowl has disturbed the head, the opposing skip should choose whether to:

 

leave the disturbed head as it is and have their team play two bowls one after the other to get back to the proper order of play;

replace the head in its former position, return the bowl and go back to the proper order of play; or

declare the end dead.

 

 

47.2 Playing another player’s bowl

  1 If a player plays another player’s bowl instead of their own, the other player’s bowl should be replaced with the player’s own bowl.

2 If the bowl which was replaced was marked or nominated as a toucher, the player’s own bowl should be marked or nominated as a toucher.

 

 

47.3 Changing bowls

  1 If a player changes their set of bowls during an uninterrupted game, or during a game that has been stopped as described in law 50 and continued on the same day, the game should be forfeited to the opponent unless the player changes their set because a bowl has been damaged (see law 49).

2 If a game that has been stopped as described in law 50 is continued on another day, a player can use a different set of bowls to the set they used during the game that was stopped.

 

 

47.4 Failing to play

  1 If the result of an end has been agreed or the process of deciding the number of shots scored has started (as described in law 40.1), a player who has failed to play a bowl (either deliberately or accidentally) will lose the right to play the bowl.

2 If a bowl has been played by each team before the players discover that one of them has failed to play a bowl in the proper order, that player will lose the right to play the bowl.

 

 

   

48 Damaged jack

  1 If the jack is damaged during the course of play, the umpire should decide if a replacement jack is needed.

2 If a replacement jack is needed, the end will be declared dead and law 31 will apply.

 

 

   

49 Damaged bowls

  1 If a bowl is damaged during the course of play, the umpire should decide if a replacement bowl is needed.

2 If a bowl that has been struck by another bowl during the course of play splits into pieces, the end should be declared dead.

 

3 In the circumstances described in paragraphs 1 and 2 above, the damaged bowl should be replaced by another bowl from the same set before the start of the next or replayed end as appropriate. 

4 If a bowl at rest in the rink of play splits into pieces without having been struck by another bowl, the bowl should be replaced with another bowl from the same set and the end continued.

 

5 If a damaged bowl cannot be replaced by another bowl from the same set, all bowls in the damaged set should be replaced with bowls from a different set. 

 

Section 13 - Factors affecting play

 

50 Game stoppages

  1 If a game is stopped because of darkness, weather conditions or any other valid reason by:

 

the Controlling Body;

the umpire after an appeal has been made by the players; or

agreement between the players when an umpire or a representative of the Controlling Body is not present;

the game should be continued either on the same day or on a different day. The scores will be as they were when the game was stopped.

 

2 If an end has started but all the required bowls have not been played, it should be declared dead. (The end should be declared dead even if one or more players choose to remain on the green during the stoppage.)

 

3 If all the required bowls in an end have been played but the process of deciding the number of shots scored (as described in law 40) has not been completed, the number of shots scored should be decided before the game stops.

 

4 Substitutes in a game that is being continued after a stoppage.

 

If any one of the original players in a team is not available, one substitute will be allowed as described in law 51.

Players, however, should not be transferred from one team to another.

 

 

   

51 Leaving the green during the course of play

  1 No player should delay play by leaving the rink of play or their team unless their opponent agrees, and then only for no more than 10 minutes.

 

2 If a player has to leave the green during the course of a team or side game due to illness or some other reasonable cause, and they cannot return within 10 minutes, the umpire or the Controlling Body can approve the introduction of a substitute.

 

3 A substitute should only be introduced if, in the opinion of both skips or, if they cannot agree, in the opinion of the umpire or the Controlling Body, the substitution is necessary.

 

4 The substitute should play in any position other than skip, and the other members of the team can rearrange their positions as necessary.

 

5 The Controlling Body will decide the substitute’s eligibility.

6 If no eligible substitute is available:

 

in a team game, the defaulting team will forfeit the game to their opponents; and

in a side game, law 46.2.2 will apply from the end in which the substitution became necessary.

 

7 If a player has to leave the green during the course of a Singles game due to illness or some other reasonable cause, and they cannot return within 10 minutes, the defaulting player will forfeit the game to their opponent.

 

8 If a player or team breaks this law, they will forfeit the game to their opponent.

9 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide the requirements for introducing a substitute player.

 

   

52 Objects on the green

  Under no circumstances, other than those described in laws 5, 15.5, 24, 29 and 38, should any object be placed on the bank, the green, in the ditch, on the jack, on a bowl or anywhere else to help a player.

   

53 Unforeseen incidents

  If, during the course of play, the position of the jack or a bowl is altered by the wind, a storm or any other unforeseen incident, the skips or opponents in Singles should put the jack or bowl back to its former position. If they cannot agree on the jack’s or bowl’s former position, they should declare the end dead.

   

54 Deliberate non-sporting action

  1 If an opponent, the manager in a side game, the umpire or the Controlling Body decides that a player has deliberately committed an act designed to give them or their team an unfair advantage, they can appeal to the Controlling Body.

 

2 If an appeal is made, it should be made to the umpire or the Controlling Body no later than 10 minutes after the final end in the game affected is completed.

 

3 The umpire or representative of the Controlling Body should take immediate steps to pass details of the appeal to the Secretary of the Controlling Body who should arrange for it to be dealt with in line with their code of conduct and disciplinary procedures.

 

Section 14 - Officials and spectators

 

55 The marker’s duties

  1 In the absence of an umpire, the marker should:

 

make sure that all aspects of play are carried out in line with the Laws of the Sport of Bowls;

check, before the game starts, that:

all bowls have a clearly visible, valid World Bowls Stamp imprinted on them;

the rink of play is the correct width in line with law 5.1 by measuring it; and

the pegs or discs on the side banks in the direction of play are the correct distances in line with law 5.12 by measuring them.

 

2 The marker should:

 

centre the jack;

check that the jack is at least 23 metres from the mat line after it has been centred;

place a jack that comes to rest less than 2 metres from the front ditch as described in law 22.2;

stand to one side of the rink, behind the jack and away from the head;

answer any specific question about the state of the head which is asked by the player in possession of the rink;

when asked, tell or show the player in possession of the rink the position of the jack;

when asked, tell or show the player in possession of the rink which bowl or bowls the marker considers to be shot;

when authorised by the Controlling Body, signal to players and spectators (using the appropriate number and colour of shot indicators or some other suitable method) which player’s bowl or bowls the marker considers to be shot;

mark all touchers with chalk and remove the chalk marks from non-touchers as soon as they come to rest;

if both players agree, remove all dead bowls from the rink of play;

mark the position of a jack and any touchers which are in the ditch as described in laws 24.4 and 29.2;

not move, or cause to be moved, either the jack or any bowls until the players have agreed the number of shots scored; and

measure any disputed shot or shots when asked to do so by either player. If the players are not satisfied with the marker’s decision, the marker should ask the umpire to do the measuring. If the Controlling Body has not appointed an umpire, the marker should choose a competent neutral person to act as the umpire. The umpire’s decision is final.

 

 

3 When each end has been completed, the marker should:

 

record the score on the score card;

tell the players the running totals of the scores; and

remove from the rink the mat used during the previous end, if necessary.

 

4 When the game has been completed, the marker should make sure that the score card:

 

contains the names and signatures of the players;

contains the time at which the game was completed; and

is dealt with in line with the Conditions of Play.

 

 

   

56 The umpire’s duties

  1 An umpire should be appointed by, or on behalf of, the Controlling Body for the competition.

 

2 The umpire’s duties are as follows.

 

To check, before the game starts, that:

all bowls have a clearly visible, valid World Bowls Stamp imprinted on them;

the rink of play is the correct width in line with law 5.1 by measuring it; and

the pegs or discs on the side banks in the direction of play are the correct distances in line with law 5.12 by measuring them.

The umpire should measure any disputed shot or shots using suitable measuring equipment, such as that described in law 10.

The umpire should decide whether the distance of the mat from the rear and front ditches and the distance of the jack or a bowl from the mat line are in line with the Laws of the Sport of Bowls or not.

The umpire should decide whether a jack or a bowl is in play or not.

The umpire should make sure that all aspects of play are in line with the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.

The umpire’s decision is final in all circumstances except those relating to the meaning or interpretation of a law, in which case there will be a right of appeal to the Controlling Body.

 

 

   

57 The manager or coach

  Either the manager or the coach of a player, team or sideor, in their absence, the manager’sdelegated deputy, can give advice to a player during the course of play as long as:

 

the umpire is given the names of the manager, the coach or the manager’s delegated deputy as appropriate before the game starts;

only one person gives advice at any one time; and

the person giving the advice does so from outside the boundaries of the green.

 

   

58 Spectators

  1 Spectators and anyone else not directly taking part in the game should stay outside the boundaries of the green and clear of the players.

 

2 If part of the green is being used for spectators, they should stay outside the boundaries of the rinks of play and clear of the players.

 

3 They should not disturb or advise the players in any way.

4 If, in the umpire’s opinion, this law has been broken, the umpire should ask the spectator or spectators concerned to stay within the law. If they do not stay within the law, the umpire should ask the Controlling Body to take immediate action to make sure that the offender stops breaking this law, including escorting the offender away from the area immediately surrounding the green or away from the venue as appropriate.

 

5 Betting or gambling on any game or games will not be allowed or take place within the grounds of any club. (See World Bowls Regulations, Part VIII – Betting and match-fixing.)

 

 Section 15 - Administrative matters

 

59 International tours and competitions

  (World Bowls Regulations Part V – Laws of the Sport, Clause 9 – International Tours and Competitions.) 1 An International Event needs a licence or written permission from WB.

 

2 The licence or permission will only be granted if the players involved are affiliated to (in other words, members of) a Member National Authority.

 

3 If a Member National Authority competes against a National Authority that is not affiliated to WB, the Board of WB will penalise the Member National Authority (including disqualification from a future International Event) as they consider appropriate in the circumstances.

 

 

   

60 Regulating Singles, Pairs, Triples and Fours games

  Where appropriate, all Laws of the Sport of Bowls will apply to Singles, Pairs, Triples and Fours games.

 

   

61 Contracting out of the Laws of the Sport of Bowls

  No Controlling Body or individual has the right or power to contract out of any of the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.

 

Appendix A

 

A.1 Conditions of Play

  1 The Controlling Body should decide on the Conditions of Play for an event before details of the event are publicised.

 

2 The Conditions of Play should be available to umpires and to entrants who ask for them and should be clearly displayed at all venues throughout the course of the event.

 

3 Conditions of Play should at least include the following.

 

The type of event (for example, Invitation Pairs Tournament, Mixed Fours and so on).

Start and finish dates and times.

Venue (or venues).

Entry conditions (for example, open or restricted entry, player eligibility and so on).

Format of play (such as sectional or knockout).

Length of games (such as the number of bowls, ends, shots, sets, time limits and so on).

Arrangements for trial ends.

Footwear and clothing (including any sponsors’ requirements). (See appendices A.2 and A.3.)

Requirements for the stamps on bowls.

Statement that all games will be played in line with the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.

 

4 If appropriate, details of the following should also be included in the Conditions of Play.

 

Statement that the event has a licence from WB, a Member National Authority or a division within a Member National Authority as appropriate.

Alterations to the format or length of the game (or both) if the game has to be stopped.

Arrangements for practice.

Arrangements for players to ‘warm up’.

Arrangements for substitutes.

Arrangements for dealing with slow play.

Arrangements for restricting the movement of players during play (see appendix A.4).

Policy on tobacco and alcohol at each venue.

Arrangements for drug testing.

Code of conduct and disciplinary procedures.

Emergency committee and disputes committee.

Prizes and rewards.

 

 

   

A.2 Footwear

  1 Players, umpires and markers should wear flat-soled (‘heel-less’) footwear when they play on the green or act as umpires or markers.

 

2 WB and Member National Authorities can approve specific colours for footwear and the types of sole.

 

 

   

A.3 Clothing

  WB and Member National Authorities can approve specific colours and types of clothing (including bowling gloves) for players, umpires and markers when they play on the green or act as umpires or markers.

 

   

A.4 Restricting the movement of players during play

  If a Controlling Body decides that it is appropriate to restrict the movement of players during play, provision for this should be included within the Conditions of Play in line with the following.

 

1 After delivering their first bowl, players will only be allowed to walk up to the head under the following circumstances.

 

Singles game

the opponents: after delivery of their third and fourth bowls

Pairs game (each player playing four bowls)

the leads: after delivery of their third and fourth bowls; and

the skips: after delivery of their second, third and fourth bowls.

Pairs game (each player playing two bowls)

the leads: after delivery of their second bowl; and

the skips: after delivery of each of their bowls.

Triples game (each player playing three bowls)

the leads: after delivery of their third bowl;

the seconds: after delivery of their second and third bowls; and

the skips: after delivery of each of their bowls.

Triples game (each player playing two bowls)

the leads: after delivery of their second bowl;

the seconds: after delivery of their second bowl; and

the skips: after delivery of each of their bowls.

Fours game

the leads: after the second player in their team has delivered their second bowl;

the seconds: after delivery of their second bowl;

the thirds: after delivery of their second bowl; and

the skips: after delivery of each of their bowls.

 

2 In exceptional and limited circumstances, a skip can ask that a player walks up to the head earlier than described in paragraph 1 above.

 

3 If a player does not meet the terms of this law, law 35 will apply.

 

Appendix B

 

B.1

Position of the bank

 

1

Vertical

2

Sloped inwards towards the green

3

Sloped outwards from the green

The standard described in diagram 3 above applies only to banks constructed in line with previous editions of the laws. Once the Crystal Mark Edition of the Laws of the Sport of Bowls is introduced, all new banks that are constructed, and all existing banks that are replaced, should meet the standard described in either diagram 1 or diagram 2 above.

 

 

B.2

Marks on the surface of the rink

 

1

Marking the centre line of the rink

2

Marking 2 metres from each front ditch on the centre line of the rink

3

Marking the spots required for sets play

3.1 Spots to meet the terms of laws 15.5.2, 15.5.3 and 15.5.4

 

3.2 Spots to meet the terms of law 15.5.6

 

 

B.3

Centring the jack

 

1

Position of the jack in relation to the marks that are 2 metres from each front ditch on the centre line of the rink (see diagram 2 in appendix B.2)

2

Position of the jack alongside a 2-metre measuring device

 

 

B.4

Distance charts

 

1

Pegs or discs fixed against the face of the side banks or on top of the side banks (illustrated by a ‘+’)

 

2

Illustration of distances in the direction of play

A:  2 metres – minimum distance of a delivered jack from the front ditch.
B:  14 metres – minimum distance of a live bowl from the mat line.
C:  20 metres – minimum distance of a rebounding jack from the mat line.
D:  23 metres – minimum distance of a delivered jack from the mat line.
E:  27 metres – distance of the jack from the mat line when measuring the pace of the green.
F:  25 metres – minimum distance of the mat line from the front ditch.
G:  2 metres – minimum distance of the mat line from the rear ditch.

 

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